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Users should always refer to the Toxicity Value Database for the current toxicity values. The Risk Assessment Information System.

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This minireview describes the health effects of antimony exposure in the workplace and the environment. To collate information on the consequences of occupational and environmental exposure to antimony on physiological function and well-being. The criteria used in the current minireview for selecting articles were adopted from proposed criteria in The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health.

Articles were classified from an acute and chronic exposure and toxicity thrust. The proportion of utilised and non-utilised articles was tabulated. Antimony toxicity is dependent on the exposure dose, duration, route breathing, eating, drinking, or skin contactother chemical exposures, age, sex, nutritional status, family traits, life style, and state of health. Long-term inhalation of antimony can potentiate pneumoconiosis, altered electrocardiograms, stomach pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach ulcers, which were confirmed in laboratory animals. Although there were investigations of the effect of antimony in sudden infant death syndrome, current findings suggest no link.

Antimony trioxide exposure is predominant in smelters. Mining and exposure via glass working, soldering, and brazing are also important. Antimony has some useful but undoubtedly harmful effects on health and well-being and measures need to be taken to prevent hazardous exposure of the like. Its biological monitoring in the workplace is essential. Antimony Sb atomic 51; atomic mass The traditional method of treating the ore is to roast it with charcoal or coke and collect the volatile oxide fume Sb 4 O 6 from which pure antimony is refined.

Very pure antimony is used to make certain types of semiconductor devices such as diodes and infrared detectors.

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Workers exposed to airborne dust can have respiratory problems. Exposure can also occur via contaminated water, food, and soil contact. Inantimony exposure was associated with lead intoxication, with symptoms including headache, abdominal pain, constipation, colic, distaste for food, loss of appetite, small mouth ulcers with salivation, dizziness, loss of weight, albuminuria, and glycosuria. The effects on health are inducement of vomiting and eye and mucous membrane irritation.

Stibine is a hemolytic agent. In some cases, cardiac arrhythmias and mild jaundice may occur necessitating treatment with intramuscular dimercaprol.

The exposure to and health effects of antimony

Other authors suggest an increased mortality from lung cancer and associated non-malignant respiratory heart diseases in workers exposed to antimony. Absorption spectrophotometry is used to analyse the concentration of antimony. Inat Beverley, Yorkshire, 19 th and 20 th century laws dealing with air pollution were anticipated. The ancient medical uses of antimony spanned nearly years since its introduction as an internal treatment in the 14 th century.

The handling of the birds was horrific, often with their feet secured in planks and their eyes gorged out.

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Antimony was then force-fed. This was to satisfy the satietary whims of French, English, and American gourmands. Milk or albumen could be administered if the poison had irritating effects. This was followed by strong tea, a decoction of oak bark, or an infusion of tannin.

The aim of this minireview was to subjectively assess the literature on the material concerning the health benefits of antimony and to classify it according to the source and publication date. The criteria used in the current minireview for selecting articles to be included were both theoretically and practically motivated and adopted from proposed criteria in The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health — ICF.

Articles were chosen only with internationally recognised impact factors greater than 0. The time frame used was principally — inclusive, although articles of extreme importance from earlier decades were used where appropriate. A multifactorial overview of the factors eschewed concerning zinc exposure was elucidated.

Antimony toxicity

It was pd that collective articles detailing known factors of usage were not necessarily correlated with functionality and health. Compilation of materials for the minireview started with the published literature or easily accessible academic research. The proportion of utilised and non-utilised articles by date is shown in Table 1.

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There seemed to be a dearth of investigations spanning the period —, although some articles were published in sources unobtainable through requests at the British library and some had no impact factor and were excluded. Selection for articles on the influence of antimony Sb and its health effects on the body.

Introduction

The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry[ 16 ] has composed a comprehensive of the public health effects of antimony, including health effects by route of exposure inhalation, oral, and dermal exposuretoxicokinetics absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretionbiomarkers of exposure, and effect, among other chapters. It is not the scope of the current review to repeat facts contained therein. Clearly, antimony toxicity is dependent on the exposure dose, duration, route breathing, eating, drinking, or skin contactother chemical exposures, age, sex, nutritional status, family traits, life style, and state of health.

One may also be exposed to antimony alloys used in lead storage batteries, solder, sheet and pipe metal, bearings, castings, type metal, ammunition, and pewter. Antimony released from smelters may remain in particulate quantities in the air, some of which reaches the soil during rainfall where it attaches strongly to particles containing iron, manganese, or aluminium.

Extremely high soil concentrations have been found at hazardous waste sites at — ppm.

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From there, it easily enters plants and grazing animals. On average, ca. There has, however, been a report expressing concern of the accumulation of antimony in reef fish and suggestions were made for The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry to analyse future samples with detection limits lower than health screening values, speciation of seaweeds being performed, and an investigation of the potential effects of catching and eating sea food being carried out.

In drinking water, this level should not exceed 0. Thankfully, antimony does not leach from drinking water pipes. The limitation existing in the study of antimony includes the lack of studies of the influence of the metal on lung cancer in human subjects. Urine, fecal, and blood tests deed to measure antimony levels do not indicate how much antimony one has been exposed to or whether one will experience adverse health effects.

Testing may require extremely sophisticated equipment, much of which is not available in GP surgeries. The limits of detection were Q and SF 1. The urinary median values observed in healthy subjects from central Italy were Although other heavy metals like cadmium are more important, antimony may be associated with PAD. He presented 60 min after ingestion with severe vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, weakness, and orthostasis.

Initial laboratory evaluations were remarkable for creatinine of 2.

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He was given activated charcoal, IV saline, and antiemetics. Over the next 48 h, his creatinine normalized to 1.

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The role of antimony compounds in SIDS was determined via hepatic biopsies, although there was no difference between the two of cause of death, SIDS or those who had died of an identified disease. The toxic gas hypothesis proposes exposure to stibine antimony trihydride generated from microbial contamination of cot mattress materials as a possible cause of SIDS as a consequence of cholinesterase inhibition. Normal cot environment conditions are non-optimal for volatilization of antimony by Scopulariopsis brevicaulis and that Sb 2 O 3 in cot mattress polyvinyl chloride PVC is not bioavailable.

The extent of antimony leaching did not correlate well with the PVC content of this element. Ingestion of antimony released from PVC could for the high variability associated with the reported detectable levels of antimony in liver from both SIDS and other infants.

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The ability of fungi to produce volatile arsenic and antimony compounds in pure culture was examined using S. Urinary antimony was assayed using ICP-MS in urine specimens collected at different ages throughout the first 2 years of life from term and 26 pre-term infants. The prevalence of SIDS has fallen since probably due to the change in preferred posture of infants in cots from prone to supine positions.

Indeed, the detection of antimony in the hair of healthy babies suggests that there is no link between its toxic accumulation and SIDS. Antimony trioxide treatment is associated with increased apoptosis associated with induced reactive oxygen species ROS as well as differentiation markers. When the buffering capacity of the cell is decreased by depleting glutathione, ROS production and apoptosis is enhanced.

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Antimony potassium tartrate has been used worldwide as an anti-shistosomal drug. Pentavalent antimony compounds have been used for the treatment of leishmaniasis. Both trivalent and pentavalent antimony compounds are generally negative in non-mammalian genotoxicity tests, while mammalian test systems usually give positive for Sb III and negative for Sb V compounds.

A study of 23 male workers ased to different fire retardant treatment tasks in the car upholstery industry vs. The range of 42 personal exposures was 0. No correlation was found between personal Sb 2 O 3 exposure and the difference in urinary antimony levels at the beginning and at the end of the work shift on the day the flame retardant was utilised.

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The concentrations of the immunoglobulin Ig G subclasses, IgE, interleukin-2, interferon-gamma, and interleukin-4 in sera obtained from workers exposed to antimony through antimony trioxide manufacture were determined and compared with those of control subjects. The serum concentrations of IgE, an Ig mediating allergic hypersensitivity, were also lower in the Sb-exposed workers than in the controls. The levels of interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma, multifunctional cytokines for T-cell-mediated immunity, were lowered in the factory workers.

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